Tour 1

(Caldwell, Idaho) —Ontario—Pendleton—The Dalles—Portland—
Astoria; 518.9 m. US 30.

Union Pacific Railroad parallels US 30 between Idaho Line and Portland;
Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railroad, between Portland and Astoria. Stage
service throughout.

Paved road, passable except after severe snow and ice storms, when sections
along Columbia River are temporarily blocked.
All types of accommodations; improved camp sites.

US 30 in Oregon closely follows the old Oregon Trail. Lewis and
Clark used boats in the Columbia to reach the coast though later travel-
ers followed the south bank of the river to The Dalles, where they
transferred.

Section a. Idaho State Line to Junction US 730, 221.7 m.

US 30 crosses the Oregon line, which is in the SNAKE RIVER,
0 m.; the river forms more than 200 miles of the Oregon-Idaho bound-
ary. The river was named Lewis Fork by William Clark in honor of his
fellow explorer Meriwether Lewis. Later the terms Shoshone and Snake
were more often applied, because of Indian tribes that inhabited its
drainage basin. Saptin, or Shahaptin, also frequently applied is derived
from a branch of the Nez Perce.

ONTARIO, 1.4 m. (2,153 alt., 1,941 pop.), a townsite in the
1880's, is the principal trade center for the 300,000 acres of the Owyhee
and Malheur irrigation projects (see TOUR 7a; also TOUR 6a).
On the irrigated farms, apples and other fruits are produced; and grain
growing, hog raising and dairying are important industries. Ontario is
the shipping point for vast areas of the Owyhee and Malheur Valleys
and is the gateway to the great cattle country of central Oregon, served
by the Oregon Eastern branch of the Union Pacific Railroad extending
127 miles southwestward to Burns (see TOUR 7a).

US 30 crosses the Malheur River (see TOUR 7a) at 3.7 m. In
Fremont's Journal, under date of October 11, 1843, he wrote: "about
sunset we reached the Riviere aux Malheurs (the unfortunate or un-
lucky river) a considerable stream, with an average breadth of fifty feet
and, at this time, eighteen inches depth of water." From the straight
young shoots of the wild syringa that grow along the river bank, the
Indians fashioned their arrows, which fact gave the bush the local name
of arrow-wood.

Northward from the Malheur the road curves over sage-covered hills,