Architecture

ARCHITECTURAL trends in Oregon have closely paralleled the
historical development of the state. In the first forty years of the
nineteenth century nearly all of the white men in the state were trappers
and fur traders, rough men who, with their Indian wives, contented
themselves with little better shelter than that of their aboriginal pre-
decessors. The first permanent cabins, blockhouses, trading posts, and
missions, were not built until the 40's and 5o's. These were simple
structures of hand-hewn timbers, with locked and caulked joints, low-
pitched roofs, and shuttered windows. A remainder of this early period
of settlement is the old Fort Yamhill blockhouse at Dayton.

In 1843 an extensive immigration began. For the most part the
newcomers had limited means. With surprising rapidity, however, their
economic condition improved and by the close of the decade they were
constructing substantial dwellings. This early period of permanent set-
tlement in the Willamette Valley, represents an important phase of the
state's architecture. Structural design was dominated by the nostalgia
of the settlers for their old homes in New England, the Ohio Valley,
and the South. At least two-thirds of the homes built during the late
1840's and 1850's show the direct influence of such traditional Colonial
and Post-Colonial styles as Georgian, Federal, and Greek Revival. Al-
though not distinguished for fineness of detail the houses were archi-
tecturally sound. Designs were simple, direct, and well proportioned.

A few of these houses, especially those in isolated sections, retained
the solid log construction of the earlier buildings, but most of them
were erected with open structural frames covered with lapped siding.
The sash, frames, siding and trim were often brought overland or
shipped around the Horn. Some seventy structures of this period are
still standing, though many of them are in a state of disrepair. A par-
ticularly fine example is the Dr. John McLoughlin residence in Mc-
Loughlin Park, Oregon City. The design of the Ladd & Reed farm-
house at Reedville recalls the colonial architecture of the South Atlantic
with its simplicity of line that made it a show place in the 1850's. The